Recent satellite observations of the solar total irradiance confirm that it is varying at least on the 11 year time scale. Both blocking by sunspots and re-emission by faculae are components in this variation, but changes in the temperature of the solar photosphere may also be a contributing component. The satellite observations are as yet of insufficient length to answer the question of whether the sun is varying in luminosity on time scales longer than the 11 year sunspot cycle. Examined here are proxy methods of re-constructing these longer term luminosity variations, with an examination of secular changes in sunspot structure as one tool. Solar rotation changes and solar diameter changes are other parameters which may reveal information about solar luminosity variations. All three variables give remarkably similar conclusions. Over the last century the Earth's surface temperatures and the structure of sunspots have varied in a parallel manner. It is hypothesized that sunspots have varied in a convective medium which itself is varying over long time periods. These variations in convective strength alter the boundary conditions on sunspots and hence cause their structure to vary. Simultaneous with the variations in convective strength, the solar luminosity will vary as well. This, in turn, leads to changes in the climate of the Earth. Variations in solar diameter and solar rotation support the hypothesis that solar luminosity has varied over the last century and reached a peak around 1925 to 1935. This evidence is reviewed along with a possible model of why sunspot structure may provide a good proxy measure of solar luminosity changes.